ORGANIC FARMING: OBJECTIVES ,TYPES AND METHODS
Organic farming is the method of crop and livestock production that involves much more than choosing not to use pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and growth hormones.
In other words, it is referred to as, low input farming and uses natural sources of nutrients such as compost, crop residues and manure, and natural methods of crop and weed control, instead of using synthetic or inorganic agrochemicals.
OBJECTIVES OF ADOPTING ORGANIC FARMING
Organic farming may be adopted, to…;
- increase genetic diversity.
- promote more usage of natural pesticides.
- ensure the right soil cultivation at the right time.
- keep and build good soil structure and fertility.
- control pests, diseases and weeds.
TYPES OF ORGANIC FARMING.
- Pure Organic farming
It involves the use of organic manures and biopesticides with complete avoidance of inorganic chemicals and pesticides.
- Integrated organic farming
It involves integrated nutrients management and integrated pest management. It is the type of farming in which development of crops from natural resources having the complete nutritive value and manage to prevent the crop or plants from the pests.
In organic farming, we use the following techniques;
- CROP ROTATION:It is the technique to grow various kind of crops in the same area, according to the different seasons, in a sequential manner.
- GREEN MANURE:It refers to the dying plants that are uprooted and turned into the soil to make them act as a nutrient for the soil to increase its quality.
- BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL:With this method, we use living organisms to control pests with or without the use of chemicals.
- COMPOST:Highly rich in nutrients, it is a recycled organic matter used as a fertilizer in the agricultural farms.
METHODS OF ORGANIC FARMING
- Soil management
After cultivation of crops, the soil loses its nutrients and its quality depletes. Organic agriculture initiates the use of natural ways to increase the fertility of the soil. Hence it focuses on the use of bacteria that is present in animal waste which helps in making the soil nutrients more productive and fertile.
2. Weed management
Weed is the unwanted plant that grows in agricultural fields. Organic agriculture focuses on lowering weed rather than removing it completely. The two most widely used weed management techniques are :
- Mulching: A process where we use plastic films or plant residue on the surface of the soil to block the growth of weed.
- Mowing or Cutting: Where there is a removal of weeds top growth.
3. Crop diversity.
Monoculture is the practice used in the agricultural fields where we harvest and cultivate only one type of crop in a particular location. Recently, polyculture has come in existence, where we harvest and cultivate different kinds of crops to meet the increasing crop demand and produce the required soil microorganisms.
4. Controlling other organisms.
There are both useful and harmful organisms in the agricultural farm which affect the field. So, we need to control the growth of such organisms to protect the soil and the crops. We can do this by the use of herbicides and pesticides that contain fewer chemicals or are natural.
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